26 آذار (مارس) Drug Index Master on Therapeutic Drugs كتاب ماستر اندكس أطلس الأدوية ' بالاسم التجاري. Unknown 7 يناير Egypt drug index. 29 آب (أغسطس) Atlas of Egyptian Drugs pro - لأول مرة برنامج اطلس للبحث عن الادوية بال. Easy Drugs is an index for drugs and other medical products existing. Easy Drugs is an index for drugs and other medical products existing in the Egyptian market. Easy Drugs is backed with the most trusted, accurate, and.
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Egyptian Drug Guide 3rd Edition Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Trade Names Index Cefzim, 66 Curam, 64 A Celebrex, 5 Curisafe. rirateccontbern.gq - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text Egyptian Drug Guide 3rd Edition Avandia. 62 TRADE NAMES INDEX. Egptian Essential Drug List 28 Prednisolone. Tablet: 5mg; 25mg. Syrup: 5mg/5ml. Injection: 25mg,mg,1g. 29 Chlorpheniramine. Tablet: 4 mg.
Angiopress 50 2. Angiosartan 10,20,40 3. Biocardis 4.
Egypro 5. Irbedrin , 75,, 6. Aprovel 7.
Engilor 2. Glaryl 3,4 9. Glucolight XR R, 10 Sediproct, 49 Sedonase, 18 Septrin- D. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. B Panadol. VitBBetolv ex. Egyptian Drug Guide 3rd Edition Avandia. Panad ol. S olocortef. Cla ritine. C Aspirin C eff. Dihydropyridine Hints: Examples are Symbicort and Seretide.
Cromoglycate Mast cell stabilizer Nasotal Nazocrom chimpchimp Hints: Reglidip 12, 15 Hence, intrafamilial transmission was thought to be a major underlying factor to the high prevalence of HCV infection in Egypt [ 18 ]. Regarding viremic contacts of HCV-negative cases, the six contacts had past history of hospitalization, surgical procedures, and exposure to used syringe and were circumcised by nonmedical personnel, and three of them had past history of injection treatment for Bilharziasis unpresented data.
These increased the proportion of viremic contacts of HCV-negative cases. HCV positivity was more frequent in older, married contacts with higher crowding index. Correspondingly, a cross-sectional study of Italian HCV-positive patients and their family members found that HCV-positive family members accounted for 8. The prevalence of anti-HCV was more likely in older family contacts [ 20 ]. The overall prevalence of HCV infection in family members was 2. This contradicts the above suggestion.
But, the high prevalence of HCV infection among contacts to HCV-negative patients could be explained by the past history of hospitalization, surgical procedures, exposure to used syringe, circumcision by nonmedical personnel, and prior injection treatment for Bilharziasis.
Moreover, it was found that HCV-positive contacts were more likely exposed to sources of infections such as shaving at common barber, infected blood, and Bilharziasis.
Thus, the risk of HCV infection increased with environmental exposure to potential sources of infection. Correspondingly, the risk of HCV infection was increased among sexual partners of the Italian index cases who were intravenous drug users In addition, a controlled historical cohort study was conducted in Iran to investigate the intrafamilial transmission of HCV infection among sexual and nonsexual contacts.
Only 2. Thus, there was no intrafamilial risk for HCV transmission, and sexual contact was more likely to stimulate the immune system rather than increasing the risk of HCV infection [ 22 ]. Moreover, in the present study, we found that risky behaviours such as using nonsterile syringes and exposure to Bilharzial infection were less frequent among household contacts to HCV-infected case.
This might reflect their awareness about the ways of HCV transmission. In this study, HCV infection in household contacts to index cases was associated with past history of blood transfusion. However, in this study, whether this transfusion was before or after blood donor screening policy was not verified, but still blood transfusion represents a main risk for HCV infection, which emphasizes more efforts for safe blood transfusion.
Correspondingly, transfusion was commonly reported as the main rout of HCV transmission among blood donors in Iran [ 24 , 25 ] and in USA [ 26 ], in asymptomatic urban population of the State of Mexico with at least one risk factor [ 27 ], and in HCV-infected patients who were identified between and in the Northern California, USA [ 28 ].
However, in Egypt, the main risk factor for HCV infection was the traditional injection treatment of schistosomiasis [ 29 — 31 ]. Limitations The main limitations of this study were the unknown duration of the disease for index case and recall bias due to the cross-sectional nature of the study, which also makes it inaccessible to assess the time relationship between exposure to risk factors including the index case and outcome HCV seropositivity unlike the prospective cohort design.
Further large-scale prospective studies to investigate the viral sequencing between cases and contacts seroconversion are recommended to prove or disprove the contact transmission. As far as information bias is concerned, this type of error could be avoided by using a well-established means of collecting data on past exposures and risk factors.
Regarding selection bias, we collected information regarding the contacts of the index patients attending Benha Faculty of Medicine, and we believe that our population is a random sample of patients with HCV. Another limitation of the study refers to the lack of assessment for HCV genotypes, so we were unable to address whether family members share the same genotype, and differing genotypes have differing rates of transmission.
Conclusion The controversy on the intrafamilial transmission of HCV infection can be due to the different methods used to detect anti-HCV antibodies first and second generations ELISA have lower sensitivity than the third-generation assays , different geographic areas, viremia levels, and sexual behaviours of the target population. This is favoured by environmental exposures to other sources of infections.
Nonetheless, contacts to HCV patients are more likely aware of the different ways of HCV transmission and avoid exposure to sources of infection. In addition, prolonged exposure to infected cases can stimulate the immune system.
Data Availability The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. References F. El-Zanaty and A. Razavi, I. Waked, C. Sarrazin et al. View at Google Scholar C. Frank, M. Mohamed, G. Strickland et al. Mohsen, A. Bernier, L. LeFouler et al. Khan, S. Luby, F. Fikree et al.
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